nology & FSSs
THz & photonic
Dynamic & quantum
metamaterial devices & systems
Materials & fabrication technologies
be replaced as agents of conductivity by
self-assembled carbon nanotubes or patterned graphene, allowing for stretchable
and flexible metamaterials. Some oxides,
semicondutors and perovskites can be
used for infrared applications.
Cu, Au, Ag & Al
c Noble metals are replaced by structured alloys,
CNT & graphene, oxides, superconductors
c Hybridization with functional materials (nanocarbon,
organics, nanosemiconductors, phase change media)
c NEMS structures
c Close-to-molecular level top-down fabrication,
self-organization, DNA & protein scaffolding, stereo
lithography, casting around organic frameworks
Peak of hype Transformation Optics MM
Designer Dispersion MM
The directional solidification of eutectics leads to the formation of wire-like
and split-ring-like structures. This has
been engaged for the manufacture of
metamaterial-like composite solids at a
size scale that is suitable for the infrared,
terahertz and microwave metamaterials. However, real progress in photonic
metamaterials will require new techniques that occupy a position between
chemical processes controlled by self-organizing forces on the truly molecular
level and the less accurate, top-down
methods of metamaterial metalworking,
which have the advantage of being able
to build metamaterials to almost any
blueprint. They will be expected to work
with a variety of materials.
These techniques may include
bioengineering approaches such as
DNA scaffolding or protein-driven
crystallization for fabricating nanopar-
ticle superlattices, the self-assembly
of semiconductor quantum dots and
magnetic nanocrystals or the casting of
metal nanostructures around liquid crys-
talline frameworks and colloidal frames.
Moreover, even metals themselves can
Metamaterials were initially perceived as
a means of developing new and unusual
electromagnetic properties (such as a
negative index of refraction) via structuring, assuming continuous (“analog”) and
linear regimes of metamaterial response.
In other words, we thought of metamaterials as, first and foremost, materials.
The current trend is to think of
metamaterials as devices, where the
structuring of metal and the hybridization with functional agents brings new
functionality and response becomes
tuneable, switchable or nonlinear. In
the near future, we will be able to enter
the field of quantum metamaterials.
Moreover, by exploiting the concept of
transformation optics, metamaterials
with spatially variable parameters and
active metamolecular switches imbedded in the strategic location will allow
combining complex quantum-level
switching and memory functions with
the waveguiding of electromagnetic
radiation across the body of a metamaterial volume. Rather than materials
or devices, we will begin to think of
metamaterials as dynamic systems. t
Nikolay I. Zheludev ( email@example.com)
is with the Optoelectronics Research Centre & the Centre for Photonic Metamaterials at the
University of Southampton in the United Kingdom.
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